The special protected territory of federal importance.
The national park was created on the 26th of February 2013 by the order of The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Medvedev, in order to protect the unique old forests of the northern taiga, to develop cognitive tourism and to monitor the ecological situation.
The creation of the national park is extremely important for preservation of culture and lifestyle of the pomor population. The park’s square is 201668 hectares.
The park’s territory possesses a unique landscape variety, combining continental, taiga, swamp, lake and coastal nature complexes. The park’s peculiarity consists in the natural taiga forests, with the view of the sea coast.
The national park is the habitat of the rare animals such as the Bewick’s swan, the osprey, the white-taled eagle, the golden eagle, the freshwater pearl mussel and the nelma.
Such animals as the harbour porpoise, the northern bottlenose whale, the fin whale, the sei whale were noticed here. In the park there are also endemics of the White Sea: the White Sea herring, the European flounder, the White Sea sponges.
Among the rare plants there are the Traunstein's dactylorhiza, the lady's-slipper orchid, the rose root and the others.
The relic kinds of the park’s plants are the alpine meadow-grass, the creeping meadow foxtail, the tofieldia and the others.
The territory of the Onega peninsula, whose territory is partly taken by the park was settled by people long ago. Along the coast of the White Sea the historians found more than 20 archeologic settlements belonging to the 5th-1st millennium В.C.
The largest lakes of the national park are the Murakanskoye Lake, the Bolshoye Vigozero, the Kamennoye Lake, the Slobodskoye Lake, the Lenozero and the others. They are the habitats of such fish as the white fish, the peled, the European cisco, the burbot, the European perch, the pike, the rutilus and the ide.
The swamps which give rise to many rivers and streams (all in all,95) take practically 50% of the Onega peninsula. The river Zolotitsa with its tributaries has the largest flow & the river basin. Thanks to its purity, the rivers and the lakes are the ideal breeding grounds for the different freshwater and migrating fish. In some streams on the park’s territory there was found a rare freshwater clam – the freshwater pearl mussel – which once was the Russian North’s pride.
The park’s coastal territories are an ideal place for watching marine mammals, such as the ringed seal, the bearded seal and the harp seal. The White Sea is one of the three places in the world where the harp seals’ cubs can be noticed in March. The white whales – small toothed whales - are feeding on near the peninsula’s shores.
The White Sea-Baltic migration path is passing through the park: in spring and in autumn you can watch 400 thousand anseriformes and other birds on the park’s territory and in the Unskaya Bay.
The park’s territory includes the geological and paleontological monuments of great academic value and rarity referring to the Vendian time.